Sprengel Shoulder

Sprengel Shoulder

What is Sprengel shoulder :

commonly known as Sprengel deformity, is a congenital shoulder ailment that affects children exclusively. This syndrome is distinguished by aberrant scapula (shoulder blade) development, which causes functional and cosmetic difficulties. Here’s an overview of Sprengel shoulder:

 Definition: Sprengel shoulder is a congenital shoulder girdle deformity named after Otto Sprengel, who originally characterized it in 1891. It is a rare disorder characterized by elevated, dysplastic 

(underdeveloped), and malrotated (abnormally positioned) scapulae (shoulder blades). As a result, the shoulders appear asymmetrical, which can contribute to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders.


The following are the key symptoms and characteristics of Sprengel shoulder:

 1. Scapular Elevation: The afflicted scapula(s) are positioned higher in the back than normal, causing one or both shoulders to seem elevated.

2. Dysplasia: The scapula(s) may be smaller or less developed than normal.

3. Malrotation: The scapula(s) may be rotated abnormally, impacting the shoulder joint’s alignment.

4. Cosmetic Concerns: Sprengel deformity frequently results in apparent asymmetry of the shoulders and back, which can be a cosmetic worry for those who are affected.

5. Functional Imbalances: This ailment, in severe situations, can limit the range of motion of the afflicted shoulder(s) and cause muscle weakening.


The specific cause of Sprengel  shoulder is unknown, but it is thought to be caused by aberrant embryonic development during the construction of the shoulder girdle.


The severity of Sprengel shoulder and its impact on the individual determine how the condition is managed. Among the treatment options available are:

 1. Physical Therapy: Stretching and physiotherapy exercises can assist increase range of motion and strengthen the muscles around the afflicted shoulder.

 2. Surgical Intervention: In some circumstances, orthopaedic treatments may be required to rectify the scapula’s position and alignment. Surgical techniques to realign the scapula and improve its function and appearance may be required.

3. Cosmetic Considerations: Treatments may focus on enhancing the appearance of the afflicted shoulder(s) through surgical or non-surgical procedures for persons primarily concerned with cosmetic issues.

 4. Supervision: Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional may be sufficient in moderate cases that have no substantial influence on function or appearance.

 It is vital to note that the treatment method will be adapted to each individual’s specific circumstance, and the optimum course of action will be determined by a healthcare professional or orthopaedic specialist.

Sprengel shoulder is a complex condition with different degrees of severity, and early detection and treatment are critical to addressing both functional and cosmetic elements of the problem.

A Case Report of Sprengel Deformity Associated with Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions and Renal Anomalies


This case report describes an uncommon and complex presentation of Sprengel’s Deformity, a congenital shoulder disorder, in a paediatric kid, together with musculoskeletal dysfunctions and renal anomalies. In diagnosing and managing such complicated congenital disorders, the research emphasizes the importance of careful clinical examination, imaging testing, and multidisciplinary collaboration.

Describe Sprengel’s Deformity as a congenital shoulder defect marked by scapular elevation, dysplasia, and malrotation.

– Discuss the rarity of cases with Sprengel’s Deformity in conjunction with musculoskeletal dysfunctions and renal anomalies.

Describe the patient’s age, gender, and pertinent medical history in your case presentation.

– Describe the clinical presentation in detail, including any physical examination results, symptoms, and complaints.

– Present imaging study results (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, MRI) demonstrating the Sprengel’s Deformity and any associated musculoskeletal or renal problems.

Discuss how clinical and radiological observations were used to confirm the diagnosis of Sprengel’s Deformity.

– Describe how to evaluate and diagnose related musculoskeletal dysfunctions and renal abnormalities.

Treatment and Management:

Describe the interdisciplinary approach used to address this complex case.

– Go over surgical techniques, physical therapy, and other treatments used to treat Sprengel’s Deformity and related concerns.

– Highlight the difficulties and implications in managing such a complex condition.

Outcome: Describe the treatment’s and interventions’ short- and long-term outcomes.

– Discuss shoulder function improvements, cosmetic appearance, and any resolved or ongoing concerns linked to musculoskeletal or renal anomalies.


– Examine the case’s uniqueness, emphasizing the rarity of concurrent instances of Sprengel’s Deformity with musculoskeletal and renal anomalies.

– Discuss the significance of early detection and intervention in the management of complicated congenital diseases.

– Think about the implications for future research, therapeutic strategies, or genetic counseling in similar situations.

 Conclusion: – Summarize the case’s principal findings and consequences.

– Stress the significance of a multidisciplinary approach and individualized treatment strategies in the management of complex congenital disorders such as Sprengel’s Deformity and accompanying anomalies.


Cite important medical literature and studies that aided in the diagnosis and treatment decisions in this case report.

Please keep in mind that the specifics of the case report will be determined by the patient’s unique medical history and clinical results. This outline is intended to serve as a broad framework for presenting a case report including Sprengel’s Deformity and accompanying musculoskeletal and renal problems.

Sprengel’s deformity is a congenital shoulder disorder characterized by aberrant scapular elevation, dysplasia, and malrotation. While the shoulder girdle is the major feature of Sprengel’s deformity, it is sometimes linked with other congenital abnormalities and disorders.

Some typical characteristics and conditions related with Sprengel’s deformity include:

 1. Scoliosis is a type of scoliosis. Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that can coexist with Sprengel’s deformity, adding to the overall musculoskeletal difficulties in affected persons.

 2. Klippel-Feil Syndrome: Klippel-Feil syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder characterized by cervical (neck) vertebral fusion. Because both disorders include anomalies in the neck and shoulder region, it can develop alongside Sprengel’s deformity.

3. Limb Length Variation: Due to musculoskeletal anomalies in the shoulder area, some people with Sprengel’s deformity may have discrepancies in the length of their arms or legs.

4. Deficient Backbone (Hemivertebrae): Hemivertebrae are unusually formed vertebrae that can disrupt the development of the spine. They could occur in tandem with Sprengel’s deformity.

5. Cervical Ribs (Missing, Fused, or Extra Ribs): Cervical ribs are extra ribs placed in the neck region. These anomalies may be detected in people with Sprengel’s deformity, adding to the condition’s complexity.

6. Collarbone Abnormalities: Variations in the shape or development of the collarbone (clavicle) are frequently related with Sprengel’s deformity.

 7. Chest Wall Abnormalities: Due to the existence of Sprengel’s malformation, the chest wall may reveal abnormalities such as asymmetry or deformities.

 8. Internal Organs Displaced on the Opposite Side: Internal organs such as the liver may be displaced or exhibit mirror-image placement in some circumstances. The normal left-right orientation of organs is reversed in this case, which is known as situs inversus.

9. Spina Bifida Occulta: Spina bifida occulta is a disorder in which one or more vertebrae in the spine have a tiny gap. It is possible that it coexists with Sprengel’s deformity and contributes to spinal abnormalities.

 10. Cleft Palate: A congenital disorder characterized by an opening or split in the roof of the mouth is known as cleft palate. While it is not directly related to the shoulder, it can be found in people with a variety of congenital defects, including Sprengel’s deformity.

It is important to highlight that the prevalence and severity of these related traits can vary greatly between people with Sprengel’s deformity. To address both the shoulder deformity and any associated malformations or syndromes, a multidisciplinary approach comprising orthopaedic surgeons, pediatricians, geneticists, and other specialists may be required. Treatment and management approaches are often adapted to each patient’s specific needs depending on their distinct appearance.

Let’s look at some elements of Sprengel’s deformity in adults, such as scapular winging and bilateral shoulder soreness, as well as workouts that may assist manage these issues:

1. Sprengel’s Deformity in Adults:

– While Sprengel’s deformity is most commonly identified in childhood, some people may continue to suffer from its effects into maturity.

– Adults with Sprengel’s deformity may experience ongoing problems such as shoulder pain, limited range of motion, and aesthetic issues.

– Physical therapy, pain treatment, and surgical therapies to enhance shoulder function and appearance may be possibilities for people with Sprengel’s deformity.

2. Scapular Winging:

Scapular winging is a condition in which the shoulder blades (scapulae) extend outward from the back, giving the appearance of a wing. Due to the aberrant location of the scapula in Sprengel’s deformity, scapular winging can occur. Exercises and physical therapy can help with scapular winging by strengthening the muscles that stabilize the scapula and promote proper scapular posture.

3. Bilateral Shoulder Pain: – Bilateral shoulder pain refers to pain in both shoulders at the same time. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including musculoskeletal difficulties, overuse, or underlying disorders. Because of the abnormal architecture and location of the scapulae in people with Sprengel’s deformity, shoulder pain is a common complaint.

   – Bilateral shoulder discomfort treatment may include pain management techniques, physical therapy, and exercises to increase shoulder strength and mobility.

 Adult Shoulder Exercises by Sprengel:

It is critical to remember that exercise programmes should be adapted to each individual’s specific condition and restrictions. Exercises should be done under the supervision of a certified physical therapist or healthcare provider.

Here are some activities that could help adults with Sprengel’s deformity:

1. Scapular Retraction Exercises: These exercises work to strengthen the muscles that draw the scapulae closer to the spine.

   – As an example, use resistance bands or cable machines to do standing or seated rows.

2. Scapular Stabilization Exercises: These exercises target the muscles that stabilize and place the scapulae.

   – An example of an exercise: Slides on the scapular wall – Place your arms at shoulder height against a wall and glide your scapulae up and down the wall.

3. Shoulder Range of Motion Exercises: – Gentle range of motion exercises can aid in the maintenance and improvement of shoulder mobility.

   – An example of an exercise: Pendulum swings entail hanging your arm by your side and gently swinging it in circular patterns.

4. Strengthening activities: Shoulder muscle strengthening activities can assist improve overall shoulder stability.

   – Shoulder presses, lateral raises, and front raises with light weights or resistance bands are examples of workouts.

 5. Exercises for Stretching and Flexibility:

   – Stretching exercises can aid in the improvement of flexibility and the reduction of muscle tension.

   – An example of an exercise: Stretch your chest and shoulders by placing your hands on both sides of a doorway and gradually leaning forward.

 Before beginning any workout programme, always speak with a healthcare physician or physical therapist, especially if you have Sprengel’s deformity or are having shoulder pain. They can examine your specific ailment and advise you on the best exercises and treatment alternatives for your personal needs.

In conclusion

Finally, Sprengel’s deformity is a congenital shoulder disorder characterized by aberrant scapular elevation, dysplasia, and malrotation. While it is most commonly diagnosed in childhood, it can persist throughout maturity, causing a variety of problems such as scapular winging and bilateral shoulder pain. Adults who have Sprengel’s deformity require a multidisciplinary approach that may involve physical therapy, pain management, and surgical procedures to restore shoulder function and appearance.

Scapular winging, a typical symptom of Sprengel’s deformity, can be treated with exercises and physical therapy that target the muscles involved for scapular stabilization. These exercises are designed to improve scapular posture and reduce aesthetic issues.

Bilateral shoulder pain, which is common in adults with Sprengel’s deformity, might be caused by changes in the architecture and placement of the scapulae. discomfort management methods, physical therapy, and targeted exercises to improve shoulder strength and mobility are used to treat this discomfort.

It is important to stress that any fitness programme for people with Sprengel’s deformity should be tailored to their specific condition and limits. These exercises should be carried out under the supervision of experienced healthcare professionals or physical therapists who may make tailored recommendations depending on the patient’s specific needs and goals. Overall, resolving the difficulties of Sprengel’s deformity in adults requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the goal of enhancing both functional and cosmetic aspects of shoulder health.

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